Tag Archives: East London weather statistics

November 2018: average and rather sunny

November was most notable for the amount of sunshine. Some 79 hours were recorded, that’s 135 per cent of average, the sunniest November for two years.

The mean temperature finished 8.4C, 0.4C above average, the mildest November for three years.

Some 72.5mm of rainfall was recorded, 122 per cent of the 1981-2010 average, the wettest November for two years.

To view full stats follow this link:http://1drv.ms/1kiTuzv

november 2018
Advertisements

London winter forecast 2018-19

Long range modelled forecasts have been all over the place of late and, looking at the underlying signals, it is easy to see why.

When I’ve produced these forecast in the past, in terms of QBO and ENSO data, there’s usually a lot of analogues to compare with. This year, however, seems to be an exception.

Considering QBO first I looked back over data to 1950 and found nothing similar for October. However, looking over the whole series the cyclical nature of this circulation may give some clue.

bestfit

Some 20 months were revealed, ranging from June 1959 to June 2015.  Using NOAA’s  Niño 3.4 region I narrowed this list down to the few that had an ENSO value of around +1 with a rising trend. With NOAA’s forecast of a Modoki El Nino (one that occurs in the central Pacific) this narrowed the list to just 1 period: June 2015. Considering maxima anomalies this would give the following winter.

winter 2018-19 max anomaly.PNG

The above would suggest there being a general cool down through December with a cold spell starting just before Christmas into the new year? And another cold spell end of January into the first week of February?

winter 2018-19 precip anomaly

The above precipitation anomaly chart would suggest a wetter than average December,  January and February, though February by much less so.

It’s been a very busy autumn so I’m keeping this short.

The below figures, particularly January and February, may be different in the event of an SSW occurring. In all then.

The mean:
December: +0.8C
January: -1.2C
February: -1.7C
Overall: -0.3C (broadly average)

Precipitation:
December: 158%
January: 155%
February: 120%
Overall: 134%

 

East London’s highs and lows of the last 60 years

The chart below shows every maximum and minimum temperature recorded in this area since January 1st 1959, some 21,860 days!

The extremes range from -12.7C recorded on January 31st 1972 to 37.5C on August 10th 2003.

After peaking in 2003, summer maxima seems to be in decline. Winter minima, by comparison, has been increasing since 2012

maxmin

October 2018: average and rather sunny

October was most notable for the amount of sunshine. Some 136 hours were recorded, that’s 127 per cent of average, the sunniest October for six years.

The mean temperature finished 11.6C, 0.2C below average, the same anomaly as September. And 1.6C cooler than October last year.

Some 52.1mm of rainfall was recorded, 78 per cent of the 1981-2010 average, the wettest October for four years.

To view full stats follow this link:http://1drv.ms/1kiTuzv

October 2018 max.JPG

Perfectly average months are extremely rare

Readers of this blog know that I often described a month as fairly average – a look at local statistics shows that many months come in very close to the monthly mean.

But when you combine mean temperature with rainfall that is 100 per cent average it becomes very rare and non-existent with 100 per cent sunshine hours considered.

Of the 2650 months since 1797 just one, February 1972, saw a mean temperature and rainfall precisely average. However, sunshine hours were just 40 per cent of the 1981-2010 average.

To extend the data I included monthly rainfall totals that were between 90 per cent and 110 per cent of average. Even then just five more months were revealed: September 1806, February 1876, January 1883, October 1886 and March 1972.

Although on paper February 1972 was perfectly average a look at the weather for the month reveals typically variable weather. The website London Weather explains:

The maximum temperature was only 3C on the 1st as mild Atlantic air slowly displaced the very cold continental air eastwards. There were outbreaks of rain, and during the remainder of the first week, although mild, it was often dull and wet. During the second week, active frontal systems crossed the country bringing strong winds but with sunshine between the rain bands. After mid month, east winds returned, and although not cold, it was frequently dull.

Considering the Met Office forecast the mean for this month, October 2018, is set to finish precisely average. However, rainfall looks set to finish well under the average for the time of year.

First frosts in East London since 1959

Although many parts of the UK have already recorded their first air frost this part of the capital, being so built up and close to the City, remains frost free.

Although many may think that frosts are getting later a look back through local statistics to 1959 shows these events are very random.

The scatter graph below illustrates this.

first frost in east london a

Taking out the winters of 1974/75 and 2002/03, which didn’t see frosts until February and January respectively, the scatter can be seen better here.

first frost in east london b

The median for the first frost is November 6th with an average minimum of -1.4C.

October frosts can be a precursor to a mild winter much in the same way that heavy October snowfall in the Alps has lead to an awful season. But there are exceptions, as happened in 2008/09.

* To record an air frost the temperature must fall to -0.1C or lower.

September 2018: average, dry and sunny

September was most notable for the amount of cold nights. The record minimum was matched together with three further new entries into the top ten list of extremes back to 1959 – a rare occurrence.

The mean temperature finished 15.2C, 0.2C below average, ending a run of 5 months where the mean has been, at times, well above average.

Some 32.6mm of rainfall was recorded, 63 per cent of the 1981-2010 average. Some 183 hours of sunshine were recorded, 132 per cent of average and more than August!

For the first time in years the autumnal equinox period was very stormy, as shown by this graph.

wind run

To view full stats follow this link:http://1drv.ms/1kiTuzv

Summary for September 2018 to follow…

 

The disappearing deluges of September

While putting together my September extremes blog I noticed that the month was marked by some big rainfall episodes. On a national scale TORRO statistics show that a south-east climate station holds the daily record for September – unusual in that every other month is dominated by stations in the north and west of Britain.

Further analysis of local data since 1959 shows how September has slowly evolved from being dominated by autumnal to summery weather. The wettest period, from the mid Sixties to the mid Seventies, saw 42 per cent of highest daily rainfall events recorded.

Two of these events, in 1968 and 1973, are well noted and appear in RMET’s Weather magazine.

1968

In Wanstead, between 14th and 15th September, a total of 58.4mm fell, a large total though far less than elsewhere.

The rain became torrential overnight in southeast England and continued through most of the 15th. Rainfall totals ranged from three inches in the London area and nearly four inches in southern Essex to approach the quite abnormal level of nearly seven and a half inches in parts of Kent during the 14th/15th.

The area of greatest precipitation was near the Kent, Surrey and Sussex border where violent downpours in the 12 to 15 hour period from midnight on Saturday to the early afternoon of Sunday 15th led to widespread and disastrous flooding. The heavier rain area moved north and east during the night of 15th/16th and Gorleston recorded.

The highest accepted two-day falls were 201mm at two rain gauges at Tilbury
and Stifford in Essex, and a similar fall north of Petworth in Sussex. The highest ‘rainday’
totals (i.e. nominally 0900–0900 GMT) listed in British Rainfall 1968 were 129 mm at
Bromley and 125 mm at South Godstone sewage works in Kent, both on 15
September.

This exceptional event was described by Bleasdale (1974), Salter and
Richards (1974) and Jackson (1977) and the map below (Fig. 1) is taken from Bleasdale’s
paper in British Rainfall 1968 (p. 231). In all, some 575 km2 received more than 150 mm
in 48 hours.

1968 rainfall

1973

In Wanstead, on 20th, a total of 55.4mm fell, the largest daily total recorded in September. Again it was far less than elsewhere.

5pm gmt 20th 1973

There were notable falls of rain in London, Surrey, West and East Sussex, and particularly Kent. At Manston, near Margate, 172 mm fell in 18 hours 40 minutes commencing 1710 GMT; at nearby West Stourmouth 190.7 mm fell in the rainfall day i.e. the 24 hours commencing 0900 GMT on 20 September (source: Met Office internal list of heavy falls of rainfall in short periods in the United Kingdom during the year 1973; Rainfall/heavy falls section listing, available in manuscript/computer printout form in Met Office archives).

The future

Big September rainfall events seem to be becoming rarer in our part of the UK, the last was in 2014, on the day of the Scottish referendum, though this was convective rather than frontal rainfall.

The outlook for the rest of this month suggests yet another absence of a large rainfall event. The ingredients for large rainfall totals in the south-east – blocking high to the north with slow moving low pressure over Brittany – look unlikely to form during the remainder of the month. We probably will see rain but any fronts are likely to move through quickly, with typical totals being around 5mm.

rain rest.gif

When did September become a summer month?

The answer is around 1993. A look back at mean temperature and rainfall statistics for east London over the past hundred years reveals that the ninth month has, since that date, slowly become warmer and drier.

Putting all the arguments of meteorological and astronomical summer aside, many people of a certain age regard September as an autumnal month, but as recent years have shown it can very often be an extension of summer; September 2016 was the second warmest on record in the local area, warmer than many previous summer months!

Looking back even further, over the past 100 years, the September mean has trended upward, though many peaks and troughs reveal how the month has ebbed and flowed from being summery to autumnal.

The prognosis to the end of this month suggests that air pressure will be anomalously high – so the pattern in the south-east for settled, summery weather in September doesn’t look like ending any time soon.

sept means
The September mean trend has crept generally upward.

sept rainfall
A look at rainfall back over the last 100 years shows that wet Septembers have been on a general decline since 1994.

sept chart.gif

London’s September extremes since 1959

September in recent years has often been a more summery month than August. But this month in some years can see a rapid onset of autumn.

I’ve put together a few top 10s of stats for Wanstead, St James’s Park and Heathrow for the month of September.

september extremes

SJP september

heathrow sept

Some national UK September values according to TORRO

Hottest: 35.6C Bawtry, South Yorkshire – 2nd 1906
Coldest: -4.5C Dalwhinnie, Highland, – 26th 1942
Wettest: 190.7mm West Stourmouth, Kent – 20th 1973

In terms of climatology September maxima, considering the 1981-2010 average, shows a slight decrease through the month, though around the 1st and the 22nd there is often a spike. This would reflect the September singularities; early September warmth occurs in 82 per cent of years while the ‘Old Wives Summer’ has a 64 per cent probability.

september mean

 

The average rainfall graphic shows that downpour amounts are variable through the month. A tendency for dry weather to the 8th prevails before the trend increases, the wettest days usually 13th and 19th.

sept rain