Tag Archives: snowfall in London

Hyperlocal forecasting of snow

The knife-edge situation for snowfall across England today set me off wondering if there was a way to forecast snow locally to a given location.

Temperature, dew point and altitude are all crucial to forecasting snow, as is precipitation intensity that can lower the wet bulb temperature, the ‘rain turning to snow’ scenario. Less well known is the role air pressure plays in these events, such as the one on December 10th which caught many forecasters by surprise by its intensity.

While various models continually improve in their skill at warning us of impending rain / snow events that often cause chaos, their resolution can still struggle and especially when the event more or less becomes a nowcast.

In the International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) there is a 1 hPa difference for each 30 feet vertical change in height in the lower levels.

If we take a forecast pressure as 970 hPa, the difference between standard conditions (1000 hPa) and 970 hPa is thus: 30 hPa

30 hPa * 30 = 900ft height variation.

You then consider local altitude: in my case 18m (59ft)

So 59ft – 900ft = 841ft  (256m)

A simple table, therefore, to consider air pressure is thus.

1000 hPa = 0m
995 hPa = 27.6m
990 hPa = 73.3m
985 hPa = 119.1m
980 hPa = 164.8m
975 hPa = 210.5m
970 hPa = 256.2m
965 hPa = 301.9m
960 hPa = 347.7m
955 hPa = 393.4m
950 hPa = 439.1m

Looking at the system today the pressure rose quickly after the centre passed, leading to a 1hr (at best) window of snow falling. As the pressure rose, and the temperature picked up only slightly the snow turned back to sleet and then rain.

pressure
Pressure rose quickly on the 27th, far more rapidly than the 10th – the pressure on this day stayed below 976mb from 8am until 3pm, allowing snow to accumulate. Temperature on the day was also around 0.5C cooler

 

pressure 10122017
Pressure fell to its lowest point 970.3mb at 1159z on the 10th

temperature

temp trace 10122017
The temp and dew point hardly moved from 9am

wet bulb

chilterns

http://weatherfaqs.org.uk/node/152

http://aeropowerflightschool.com.au/how-to-calculate-pressure-heightaltitude/

 

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Snow for day after Boxing Day?

The models are showing another knife-edge situation for snow – similar to the ‘rain turning to snow’ event earlier this month. But there are a number of factors working against it this time round, at least for most of us who live between sea level and 30 metres.

Screen Shot 2017-12-26 at 08.43.38
The highest resolution model AROME shows snowfall rate but I would expect that only high ground (100m +) will see any accumulation

The low level supply of air off the continent is much milder this time round. Hamburg and northern Germany on the 9th was some 5C colder than currently.

The air pressure, crucial to bringing that snow line down lower, is forecast to be around 10mb higher this time.

And even if we see settling the soil temps, after the recent mild spell, are still 5C – 10C down to 10cm… Screen Shot 2017-12-26 at 11.46.19

wet bulb

chilterns